An IPO (Initial Public Offering) is the first public offering of a company’s shares, also called an issue. The issuing company issues its shares on the market for the first time, and a wide range of investors buy them.
The IPO allows the company to attract significant financial resources from various investors on fairly favorable terms. Investors receive a small “share” of the company’s business and actually become co-owners of this company.
After entering the stock exchange, the status of the company changes — from private, it becomes public one, and its shares are freely traded on the stock exchange and can be bought by anyone.
SPO (Secondary Public Offering) - public offering of shares owned by existing shareholders. As a rule, to the founders of the company or venture funds.
SPO is an offer of already existing shares owned by someone taken from the secondary market. As a rule, either the founders of the company, that is, the original shareholders, or venture funds, which fix their profits in this way, sell their securities through SPO.
SPO, unlike IPO, does not affect the size of the authorized capital of the company. However, at the same time, such an offering still makes the company public one, that is, one whose shares are freely traded on the securities market. In addition, the number of shareholders increases, which makes the shares liquid.